Victorian Women Writers and the Classics: The Feminine of Homer (Classical Presences)
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The Authoress of the Odyssey. New York. Clayton, Barbara. Lanham, MD. Cohen, Beth, ed. New York and Oxford. Culham, Phyllis.
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Doherty, Lillian Eileen. Ann Arbor. Farrington, Benjamin. Samuel Butler and the Odyssey. Felson-Rubin, Nancy. Regarding Penelope: Character to Poetics. Felson, Nancy and Laura Slatkin. Robert Fowler 91— Fetterley, Judith. The Resisting Reader. Bloomington, IN. Gold, Barbara K. Graham, A. Greene, Gayle, and Coppelia Kahn, eds. London and New York. Heitman, Richard. Katz, Marilyn A. Kauffman, Linda S. Kolodny, Annette. Mackail, J. Penelope in the Odyssey. Marquardt, Patricia. Schoder, S. Robert F. Sutton, Jr. Wauconda, IL.
Murnaghan, Sheila. Disguise and Recognition in the Odyssey. Porter, Carolyn. Prins, Yopie. Victorian Sappho. Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin, ed. Feminist Theory and the Classics. New York and London. Richter, David H. Falling Into Theory. Schein, Seth. Schweickart, Patrocino P. Showalter, Elaine. The New Feminist Criticism. Skinner, Marilyn, ed. Rescuing Creusa. Special issue, Helios n. Lubbock, TX. See Schein for a different way of explaining the preponderance of women through genre: in his argument, the Odyssey as a song of homecoming will generically include more women than a war epic like the Iliad.
It is about a supposed widow of forty wooed by one hundred and eight young men, whom she fools mercilessly, encouraging them and putting them off for four years, and finally, getting bride-presents out of them on the eve of their planned destruction. The writer cannot sacrifice either conception. Over a hundred young men at the feet of one woman, and fooled to the top of their bent—that is a situation too good to forego.
And the chaste and faithful wife remaining true to her lord in spite of all temptations to despair of his safety and take a new husband—that is also felt to be necessary. For one example, J. One of the foolish things said about it by a brilliant but eccentric modern writer was that it was written by a woman. Jones notes that the second edition is required because the first edition has sold out Butler 2nd ed.
The tensions between the two epics are defined as the jealousy of the woman author toward the man whose footsteps she is following in. The criticism has not prevented further arguments for such a use out of admitted desperation for evidence for whatever time period the Homeric epics are deemed to be.
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Culham presented strong objections to using Homer as well as other poetry as historical evidence. Graham , who does not cite Culham, does want to use the Odyssey as historical evidence for his argument that Greek colonists would bring women with them in establishing a new Greek community For two examples, see Marquardt and Schein Consequences be damned!
Sappho reveals that Anactoria is gone and is missed. She compares her, indirectly, to Helen and then evokes her beauty, namely her gait and her sparkling face. But they are also powerful, as she rejects the world of masculine warfare in preference for beauty and desire.
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In another well-preserved piece, Fragment 31, Sappho evokes the sensations she experiences as a result of being seated opposite a beautiful woman:. He seems to me equal in good fortune to the whatever man, who sits on the opposite side to you and listens nearby to your sweet replies and desire-inducing laugh: indeed that gets my heart pounding in my breast. For just gazing at you for a second, it is impossible for me even to talk; my tongue is broken, all at once a soft flame has stolen beneath my flesh, my eyes see nothing at all, my ears ring, sweat pours down me, a tremor shakes me, I am more greenish than grass, and I believe I am at the very point of death.
The man is god-like because he can be in the presence of the woman and remain unaffected. Sappho, in contrast, is a physical, mental and emotional wreck. The fragmented condition of the piece includes a few words that indicate at least one more stanza followed. Translating Sappho is no mean feat. Most of the work is in poor condition, pieced together by papyrologists to make readable texts for scholars to work from.
Confronted with the Aeolic Greek of the poet, printed neatly on a page, the translator is immediately drawn into emendations, conjectures, broken lines, missing words, incomplete words, hypothetical punctuation and, in short, a philological headache. And, after persisting, the translator is always dissatisfied. But despite the hurdles and the intellectual heartache, there are rewards in recent discoveries that continue to add more words, more lines, more stanzas and sometimes even new poems to the canon. In , the discovery of piece of papyrus that completed an existing fragment - thereby making a new poem by Sappho - received international media coverage.
The process of repair resulted in Poem 58 , which deals with the themes of youth and old age. Sappho mourns the passing of her youth, and reminds her audience of the myth of Tithonos , one of the few mortals to be loved by a goddess. Struck by the beauty of the young man, the goddess Eos asks Zeus to permit her to take the young man to live with her eternity. But Eos forgets to ask that Tithonos be granted a second gift: eternal youth. And so, she is left with a lover she quickly finds hideous and repellent, and Tithonos is left alone, trapped in a never-ending cycle of ageing.
More and more of Sappho is emerging. In , more new fragments were discovered that have assisted in reconstructing existing pieces, and bringing to light four previously unknown pieces. One relatively complete poem, Brothers Song is the most significant of the find because of its hitherto unknown status.
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The piece is also important because it further develops the image of the poet as an artist whose themes extended beyond the sensual and romantic. The discoveries of this century are testimony to the fascinating and random nature of such finds. Rather than being hidden away in obscure manuscripts in dusty archives or included in elaborate scrolls, the fragments have sometimes come from less salubrious environments.
And while other pieces were preserved as quotations in more respectable formats, such as books on grammar, composition and philosophy, the poem originally came from the cartonnage of an Egyptian mummy. Some critics consider him to have had a larger international impact and worldwide audience than any other writer of the Latin American Boom.
The discussion of the literary canon above, especially with regard to "Great Book" and the "debate" over the canon, is also relevant.
Ancient Greek philosophy has consistently held a prominent place in the canon. Only a relatively small number of works of Greek philosophy have survived, essentially those thought most worth copying in the Middle Ages. Plato , Aristotle and, indirectly, Socrates are the primary figures. Roman philosophy is included, but regarded as less significant as it tended to be even by the Romans themselves.
The ancient philosophy of other cultures now receives more attention than before the 20th century. The vast body of Christian philosophy is typically represented on reading lists mainly by Saints Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas , and the 12th-century Jewish scholar Maimonides is now usually represented, mostly by The Guide for the Perplexed.
The academic canon of early modern philosophy generally includes Descartes , Spinoza , Leibniz , Locke , Berkeley , Hume , and Kant , though influential contributions to philosophy were made by many thinkers in this period. Women have engaged in philosophy throughout the field's history. There were female philosophers since ancient times, notably Hipparchia of Maroneia active c. While other areas of the humanities are at or near gender parity, philosophy is actually more overwhelmingly male than even mathematics.
Many philosophers today agree that Greek philosophy has influenced much of Western culture since its inception. Alfred North Whitehead once noted: "The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato. Plato was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens , the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
He is widely considered the most pivotal figure in the development of philosophy, especially the Western tradition , unlike nearly all of his philosophical contemporaries. Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist. Their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance , and his views were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics.
In metaphysics, Aristotelianism profoundly influenced Judeo-Islamic philosophical and theological thought during the Middle Ages and continues to influence Christian theology , especially the Neoplatonism of the Early Church and the scholastic tradition of the Roman Catholic Church.
His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today. Major Western writers and philosophers have been influenced by Eastern philosophy. Through his teacher Ammonius Saccas died c.
AD , the Greek speaking philosopher Plotinus may have been influenced by Indian thought, because of the similarities between neoplatonism and the Vedanta philosophies of Hinduism. American modernist poet T S Eliot wrote that the great philosophers of India "make most of the great European philosophers look like schoolboys". Chinese philosophy originates during a period known as the " Hundred Schools of Thought ",  philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to B.
A porous distinction between analytic and continental approaches emerged during this period. The term "continental" is misleading, as many prominent British philosophers such as R. Collingwood and Michael Oakeshott were non-analytic, and many non-British European philosophers like Wittgenstein were analytic.
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Moreover, analytic approaches are dominant in the Netherlands, Scandinavia, Germany, and parts of east-central Europe today. Some argue in English-speaking countries, it is better to distinguish between the dominant approaches of university departments, where Modern Language departments tend to favor continental methods and philosophy department tends to favor analytic ones.
Female philosophers have begun to gain prominence in the last hundred years. Notable female philosophers from the contemporary period include Susanne Langer — , Simone de Beauvoir — , Simone Weil , and Martha Nussbaum —. The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. In classical music , during the nineteenth century a "canon" developed which focused on what was felt to be the most important works written since , with a great concentration on the later part of this period, termed the Classical period , which is generally taken to begin around In the s, the standard concert repertoire of professional orchestras, chamber music groups, and choirs tends to focus on works by a relatively small number of mainly 18th- and 19th-century male composers.
Many of the works deemed to be part of the musical canon are from genres regarded as the most serious , such as the symphony , concerto , string quartet , and opera. Folk music was already giving art music melodies, and from the late 19th century, in an atmosphere of increasing nationalism , folk music began to influence composers in formal and other ways, before being admitted to some sort of status in the canon itself. Since the early twentieth century non-Western music has begun to influence Western composers.
Specifically, he was drawn to the Javanese gamelan,  which he first heard at the Paris Exposition. He was not interested in directly quoting his non-Western influences, but instead allowed this non-Western aesthetic to generally influence his own musical work, for example, by frequently using quiet, unresolved dissonances, coupled with the damper pedal, to emulate the "shimmering" effect created by a gamelan ensemble.
American composer Philip Glass was not only influenced by the eminent French composition teacher Nadia Boulanger ,  but also by the Indian musicians Ravi Shankar and Alla Rakha , His distinctive style arose from his work with Shankar and Rakha and their perception of rhythm in Indian music as being entirely additive. In the latter half of the 20th century the canon expanded to cover the so-called Early music of the pre-classical period, and Baroque music by composers other than Bach and George Frideric Handel.
Earlier composers, such as Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina , Orlande de Lassus and William Byrd , have also received more attention in the last hundred years. The absence of female composers from the canon has been debated in the twentieth century, even though there have been female composers throughout the classical music period. Marcia J Citron, for example, has examined "the practices and attitudes that have led to the exclusion of women [sic] composers from the received 'canon' of performed musical works. Saariaho's opera L'amour de loin has been staged in some of the world's major opera houses, including The English National Opera  and in the Metropolitan Opera in New York.
The backbone of traditional Western art history are artworks commissioned by wealthy patrons for private or public enjoyment. Much of this was religious art, mostly Roman Catholic art. The classical art of Greece and Rome has, since the Renaissance, been the fount of the Western tradition.
Giorgio Vasari — is the originator of the artistic canon and the originator of many of the concepts it embodies. His Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects covers only artists working in Italy,  with a strong pro-Florentine prejudice, and has cast a long shadow over succeeding centuries. Northern European art has arguably never quite caught up to Italy in terms of prestige, and Vasari's placing of Giotto as the founding father of "modern" painting has largely been retained.
In painting, the rather vague term of Old master covers painters up to about the time of Goya. This "canon" remains prominent, as indicated by the selection present in art history textbooks, as well as the prices obtained in the art trade. But there have been considerable swings in what is valued.
In the 19th century the Baroque fell into great disfavour, but it was revived from around the s, by which time the art of the 18th and 19th century was largely disregarded. The High Renaissance , which Vasari regarded as the greatest period, has always retained its prestige, including works by Leonardo da Vinci , Michelangelo , and Raphael , but the succeeding period of Mannerism has fallen in and out of favour.
In the 19th century the beginnings of academic art history, led by German universities, led to much better understanding and appreciation of medieval art , and a more nuanced understanding of classical art, including the realization that many if not most treasured masterpieces of sculpture were late Roman copies rather than Greek originals. The European tradition of art was expanded to include Byzantine art and the new discoveries of archaeology , notably Etruscan art , Celtic art and Upper Paleolithic art.
Since the 20th century there has been an effort to re-define the discipline to be more inclusive of art made by women; vernacular creativity, especially in printed media; and an expansion to include works in the Western tradition produced outside Europe. At the same time there has been a much greater appreciation of non-Western traditions, including their place with Western art in wider global or Eurasian traditions. The decorative arts have traditionally had a much lower critical status than fine art , although often highly valued by collectors, and still tend to be given little prominence in undergraduate studies or popular coverage on television and in print.
Women were discriminated against in terms of obtaining the training necessary to be an artist in the mainstream Western traditions. In addition, since the Renaissance the nude , more often than not female, [ citation needed ] has had a special position as subject matter. In the s, feminist art criticism continued this critique of the institutionalized sexism of art history, art museums, and galleries, and questioned which genres of art were deemed museum-worthy. Whereas men experience presence in our art institutions, women experience primarily absence, except in images that do not necessarily reflect women's own sense of themselves.
The preface to the Blackwell anthology of Renaissance Literature from acknowledges the importance of online access to literary texts on the selection of what to include, meaning that the selection can be made on basis of functionality rather than representativity". One is "unabashedly canonical ", meaning that Sidney, Spenser, Marlowe, Shakespeare, and Jonson have been given the space prospective users would expect. It also includes texts that may not be representative of the qualitatively best efforts of Renaissance literature, but of the quantitatively most numerous texts, such as homilies and erotica.
A third principle has been thematic, so that the anthology aims to include texts that shed light on issues of special interest to contemporary scholars. The Blackwell anthology is still firmly organised around authors, however. It is arguable that such an approach is more suitable for the interested reader than for the student. Der Kanon , edited by Marcel Reich-Ranicki , is a large anthology of exemplary works of German literature. See Key texts of French literature. Several of these works are lists themselves; such as early dictionaries, lists of songs, recipes, biographies, or encyclopedic compilations of information such as mathematical, scientific, medical, or plant reference books.
Other items include early translations of literature from other countries, history books, first-hand diaries, and published correspondence. Notable original works can be found by author name. The Danish Culture Canon consists of works of cultural excellence in eight categories: architecture , visual arts , design and crafts , film , literature , music , performing arts , and children's culture.
An initiative of Brian Mikkelsen in , it was developed by a series of committees under the auspices of the Danish Ministry of Culture in — as "a collection and presentation of the greatest, most important works of Denmark's cultural heritage. The list was compiled through votes from members of the Svenska Akademien , Swedish Crime Writers' Academy , librarians, authors, and others.
Approximately 30 of the books were Swedish. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main articles: Classic book and Great books. Main articles: Elizabethan literature and Metaphysical poets. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: List of important publications in philosophy. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. November Main article: Art history. Main article: Women artists. This is because their works have not yet gained the status of classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Auli Gellii Noctes Atticae: ex editione Jacobi Gronovii, cum notis et interpretatione in usum Delphini, variis lectionibus, notis variorum, recensu editionum et codicum, et indice locupletissimo, accurate recensitae in Latin.
Valpy, A. Archived from the original on March 25,