Urban Regeneration and Social Sustainability: Best Practice from European Cities (Real Estate Issues)

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In , Jane Jacobs published The Death and Life of Great American Cities , one of the first—and strongest—critiques of contemporary large-scale urban renewal. However, it would still be a few years before organized movements began to oppose urban renewal. The Rondout neighborhood in Kingston, New York on the Hudson River was essentially destroyed by a federally funded urban renewal program in the s, with more than old buildings demolished, most of them historic brick structures built in the 19th century.

Similarly ill-conceived urban renewal programs gutted the historic centers of other towns and cities across America in the s and s for example the West End neighborhood in Boston, the downtown area of Norfolk, Virginia and the historic waterfront areas of the towns of Narragansett and Newport in Rhode Island.

By the s many major cities developed opposition to the sweeping urban-renewal plans for their cities. In Boston , community activists halted construction of the proposed Southwest Expressway but only after a three-mile long stretch of land had been cleared. In San Francisco , Joseph Alioto was the first mayor to publicly repudiate the policy of urban renewal, and with the backing of community groups, forced the state to end construction of highways through the heart of the city.

Atlanta lost over 60, people between and because of urban renewal and expressway construction, [33] but a downtown building boom turned the city into the showcase of the New South in the s and s. In the early s in Toronto Jacobs was heavily involved in a group which halted the construction of the Spadina Expressway and altered transport policy in that city. Some of the policies around urban renewal began to change under President Lyndon Johnson and the War on Poverty , and in , the Housing and Urban Development Act and The New Communities Act of guaranteed private financing for private entrepreneurs to plan and develop new communities.

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Subsequently, the Housing and Community Development Act of established the Community Development Block Grant program CDBG which began in earnest the focus on redevelopment of existing neighborhoods and properties, rather than demolition of substandard housing and economically depressed areas. Currently, a mix of renovation, selective demolition, commercial development, and tax incentives is most often used to revitalize urban neighborhoods. An example of an entire eradication of a community is Africville in Halifax , Nova Scotia. Gentrification is still controversial, and often results in familiar patterns of poorer residents being priced out of urban areas into suburbs or more depressed areas of cities.

Some programs, such as that administered by Fresh Ministries and Operation New Hope in Jacksonville, Florida , and the Hill Community Development Corporation Hill CDC in Pittsburgh's historic Hill District attempt to develop communities, while at the same time combining highly favorable loan programs with financial literacy education so that poorer residents are not displaced.

Dent Lackey Plaza closed within twenty to thirty years of their construction. In several American cities, some demolished blocks were never replaced. Ultimately, the former tourist district of the city along Falls Street was destroyed. It went against the principles of several urban philosophers, such as Jane Jacobs , who claimed that mixed-use districts were needed which the new downtown was not and arteries needed to be kept open.

Smaller buildings also should be built or kept. In Niagara Falls, however, the convention center blocked traffic into the city, located in the center of Falls Street the main artery , and the Wintergarden also blocked traffic from the convention center to the Niagara Falls.

The Rainbow Centre interrupted the street grid, taking up three blocks, and parking ramps isolated the city from the core, leading to the degradation of nearby neighborhoods. Tourists were forced to walk around the Rainbow Center, the Wintergarden, and the Quality Inn all of which were adjacent , in total five blocks, discouraging small business in the city. Urban renewal sometimes lives up to the hopes of its original proponents — it has been assessed by politicians, urban planners , civic leaders, and residents — it has played an undeniably [ citation needed ] important if controversial role.

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But at other times urban redevelopment projects have failed in several American cities, having wasted large amounts of public funds to no purpose. Replenished housing stock might be an improvement in quality; it may increase density and reduce sprawl ; it might have economic benefits and improve the global economic competitiveness of a city's centre. It may, in some instances, improve cultural and social amenity, and it may also improve opportunities for safety and surveillance.

Developments such as London Docklands increased tax revenues for government. In late , the British commentator Neil Wates expressed the opinion that urban renewal in the United States had 'demonstrated the tremendous advantages which flow from an urban renewal programme,' such as remedying the 'personal problems' of the poor, creation or renovation of housing stock, educational and cultural 'opportunities'.

The process has often resulted in the displacement of low-income city inhabitants when their dwellings were taken and demolished. Eventually, urban redevelopment became an engine of construction of shopping malls, automobile factories and dealerships, "large box" department stores like Target, Costco and Best Buy.

Parker displaced thousands of largely African-American families, but provided them with no replacement housing because at the time the law did not provide for any. Also, the version of the project that was approved by the U. Replacement housing — particularly in the form of high-rise housing for low-income tenants — has not been successful.

These projects are difficult to police, leading to an increase in crime, and such structures might in themselves be dehumanizing. Louis became so bad that they had to be demolished. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Land redevelopment in cities. For other uses, see Urban renewal disambiguation.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Urban renewal in Singapore. Main article: Urban regeneration in South Korea.

Archived from the original on 15 October Retrieved 2 October Community Development. Retrieved Phillips, and W. Yeo, eds. Beyond Description: Singapore Space Historicity. The Cambridge Urban History of Britain: — Cambridge University Press. British History Online. Retrieved 23 May Archived from the original on New Cinemas: Journal of Contemporary Film. Princeton: Princeton University Press. In Samuel P.

Urban Regeneration in Europe (Real Estate Issues) - PDF Free Download

Hays ed. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh. How City Hall Causes Sprawl," p. Urban planning. Regional Planning Association of America. Environmental design Environmental impact assessment Recreation resource planning Sustainable development. The Government, not least through the Social Exclusion Unit, is looking at problems on the most unpopular council estates. Other inner-city areas of older housing also face a range of social problems.

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Since , the Joseph Rowntree Foundation JRF has been trying to discover what works in the regeneration of deprived neighbourhoods. The research findings show that each area is different, with its own distinct problems and opportunities. Local initiatives must be allowed the room to 'grow' and find their own ways of responding to local needs and priorities. Nevertheless, JRF research also highlights clear similarities in the issues and processes that all regeneration initiatives must address. Only comprehensive approaches are likely to succeed; and appropriate action must be taken in all of the following areas.

Failure to do so can undermine the long-term sustainability of regeneration. This Foundations brings together under six headings what has been learnt to date from the JRF's Action on Estates Programme 33 projects carried out between and and the current Area Regeneration Programme which has so far supported 36 projects.

Hugo Priemus - Post industrial Dynamics and Urban Housing

Some specific reports from these programmes and the estates on which the particular activities discussed have occurred are listed on the back page. A key first step in regenerating any neighbourhood is to understand the problems affecting it and to identify the assets and energies that can be harnessed to the work at the local level and within wider strategies. The Foundation's Action on Estates Programme confirmed that neighbourhoods of concentrated poverty and unemployment often experience a host of related problems: low educational achievement, low aspirations, poor access to labour markets, crime, vandalism, poor facilities and lack of choice.

The demand in these areas on overstretched services and on informal support systems is very high. Coupled with negative stereotyping from outside, the problems take a heavy toll on local residents. Those able to find work look for opportunities to move away, and only those with no choice tend to stay behind. This cycle of exclusion needs to be broken at two levels.

At the local level, action needs to start with a rigorous assessment of the particular nature and history of each neighbourhood, mapping assets and areas of potential growth as well as problems. In North Tyneside, local residents carried out a skills survey of more than 1, households, which revealed a wealth of unexpected talent that led to resident-run community activities. Preparatory work of this kind allows local residents to express their needs and also to develop their own ideas and plans for tackling local problems.

This work can clarify the complexities of an area and the varying needs of different communities, ethnic groups and interest groups and should inform the design of projects by agencies involved in regeneration. Beyond the local level, national, regional and city-wide strategies are also needed to address the wider circumstances that create exclusion, and to provide a framework for action which has a clear focus on the neighbourhood, but which is also tied into mainstream policies. Neglect in the past has caused problems in disadvantaged neighbourhoods to grow and fester. This was evident in the old inner city slums and today has become equally obvious on the most unpopular council estates.

Current housing policy has emphasised breaking up such concentrations through selective demolition, transfers to new landlords, mixing tenures and other means. Within clearly thought-out city strategies, these methods can work well to stabilise difficult areas. Used indiscriminately, however, their effect is to displace problems into other areas. Policies such as these need to be used hand-in-hand with measures to strengthen communities, bringing residents to the centre of area regeneration and transforming the delivery of mainstream services.

Many studies within JRF's Action on Estates Programme showed that urban regeneration schemes only work with a solid base of community participation.

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Involving residents late - or in tokenistic ways - is damaging. Residents are major stakeholders and bring enormous local expertise: in a number of areas Manchester, North Tyneside and Devonport it was resident-led initiatives that levered in resources for major improvements. When areas have been neglected for years, the self-esteem of local residents is at a low ebb. Using a variety of imaginative approaches is crucial. Within projects studied by JRF these have included visits to other areas, Planning for Real in North Tyneside and a Community Planning Week in York, featuring a caravan touring the estate with an exhibition, a panel session with local professionals, and the involvement of children in an environmental stock-take.

Start-up events need to: work at the pace of local residents and involve their priorities; be fun; and be allowed enough time to be effective. Small amounts of money to kick-start these activities need to be available before main projects start, but should also be on tap throughout the life of regeneration programmes. Community regeneration is a long haul and some current special initiatives last for up to 10 years. Budgets are needed to resource resident involvement throughout - including provision for office space, telephones and other administrative costs.

Residents also need support and training. Enabling them to play an equal part with professionals in partnerships can be time-consuming. Before the programme started, residents in Devonport worked for several months with a community architect to prepare plans for the comprehensive renewal of their estate. On five London estates in another project, housing association staff worked for six months with residents to put together joint Action Plans.

Training needs might include understanding how the council works, a range of community development techniques and a host of specialist subjects. Local residents have to learn to work within partnerships and professionals have to learn to work with residents. For residents, the challenge is to push for action on local needs and problems and to negotiate with agencies which have differing agendas.

Their own practical input on issues like community safety, street cleaning and truancy can be a powerful bargaining tool. Professionals work within cultures that are often resistant to change. Successful work with community groups will require agencies to reshape organisational structures and radically change the style of meetings. Like residents, professionals require training; this might include bringing them up to speed on targeting services, codes of practice, forward planning, community participation, and project evaluation.

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One project in Middlesbrough showed key factors in a community liaison group achieving significant influence within City Challenge. Search Browse About. Article details. Link to site. Real Estate Management and Valuation. Article title. Title variants. Languages of publication. It can be argued that sustainable urban land development depends on the long-term viability and management success of local economic development.

It can be further argued that here, economic sustainability is the key. This article examines two criteria within this discourse: innovativeness and social cohesion. In doing so, it proposes a framework for empirical analysis where it is suggested that western, post-socialist and low developed cases choose different strategies due to their different starting points. Physical description. Tom Kauko. Nikolai Siniak. Allen J.

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